- 330 – Constantinople is consecrated.
- 868 – A copy of the Diamond Sutra is printed in China, making it the oldest known dated printed book.
- 912 – Alexander becomes Emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- 1745 – War of the Austrian Succession: French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch–Hanoverian army.
- 1792 – Robert Gray commands the first expedition to sail into the Columbia River.
- 1812 – Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the British House of Commons.
- 1813 – William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth discover a route across the Blue Mountains, opening up inland Australia to settlement.
- 1833 – The Lady of the Lake strikes an iceberg off Newfoundland and sinks with the loss of up to 265 passengers and crew.
- 1846 – President James K. Polk asked for a Declaration of War against Mexico, starting the Mexican–American War.
- 1857 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: Indian rebels seize Delhi from the British.
- 1858 – Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd state of the United States.
- 1880 – Seven people are killed in the Mussel Slough Tragedy, a gun battle in California.
- 1889 – An attack upon a U.S. Army paymaster and escort results in the theft of over $28,000 and the award of two Medals of Honor.
- 1894 – Four thousand Pullman Palace Car Company workers go on a wildcat strike.
- 1910 – An act of the U.S. Congress establishes Glacier National Park in Montana.
- 1943 – World War II: American troops invade Attu Island in the Aleutian Islands in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces.
- 1945 – World War II: Off the coast of Okinawa, the aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill is hit by two kamikazes.
- 1960 – Adolf Eichmann is captured by the Mossad in Argentina.
- 1963 – Racist bombings in Birmingham, Alabama, disrupt nonviolence in the Birmingham campaign and precipitate a crisis involving federal troops.
- 1970 – The 1970 Lubbock tornado kills 26 and causes $250 million in damage.
- 1973 – Citing government misconduct, Daniel Ellsberg’s charges for his involvement in releasing the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times are dismissed.
- 1985 – Fifty-six spectators die and more than 200 are injured in the Bradford City stadium fire.
- 1987 – Klaus Barbie goes on trial in Lyon for war crimes committed during World War II.
- 1996 – After the aircraft’s departure from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled chemical oxygen generators in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 on board.
- 1997 – Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player in a classic match format.
- 1998 – India conducts three underground atomic tests in Pokhran.
- 2000 – Second Chechen War: Chechen separatists ambush Russian paramilitary forces in the Republic of Ingushetia.
- 2010 – David Cameron takes office as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom as the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats form the country’s first coalition government since the Second World War.
- 2011 – An earthquake of magnitude 5.1 hits Lorca, Spain.
- 2013 – Fifty-two people are killed in a bombing in Reyhanlı, Turkey.
- 2014 – Fifteen people are killed and 46 injured in Kinshasa in a stampede caused by tear gas being thrown into soccer stands by police officers.
- 2016 – One hundred and ten people are killed in an ISIL bombing in Baghdad.